. While often pointedly nationalist, these cultural and political leaders interacted within the West to such an extent as to change both themselves and the West. Both Europe and North America felt the effects of the Reformation and combined Catholic and Protestant culture.  However, he also states that, while in general researchers consider that the West has three main components (European, North American and Latin American), in his view, Latin America has followed a different development path from Europe and North America.  Whether Russia should be categorized as "East" or "West" has been "an ongoing discussion" for centuries.  The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved in 1806 by the French Revolutionary Wars; abolition of the Roman Catholic Inquisition followed. In the 13th and 14th centuries, a number of European travelers, many of them Christian missionaries, had sought to cultivate trading with Asia and Africa. Which Countries Are Considered Western Europe? ", As Cold War II Looms, Washington Courts Nationalist, Rightwing, Catholic, Xenophobic Poland, "U.S. Weaponry Is Turning Syria Into Proxy War With Russia", "U.S., Russia escalate involvement in Syria", "U.S. and other powers kick Russia out of G8", "The Folly of Playing High-Stakes Poker with Putin: More to Lose than Gain over Ukraine. Western civilization is also linked to Christianity, which had a significant impact on Roman culture, Hellenistic philosophy. Based on a 2006–2008 worldwide survey by Gallup. Christianity remains the dominant religion in the Western world, where 70% are Christians. Through its long history, the Church has been a major source of social services such as schooling. Relative geographic prevalence of Christianity versus the second most prevalent religion Islam and lack of either religion, in 2006. The west displayed its cultural products as well. This division into Eastern and Western Roman Empires was reflected in the administration of the Roman Catholic and Eastern Greek Orthodox churches, with Rome and Constantinople debating over whether either city was the capital of Western religion. Western civilization, western culture or the West is made up of European culturally derived societies (most notably in the Classical Roman heritage, Western Christianity ( Catholicism and Protestantism ), Democracy and Liberalism ). , According to a few writers, the future conquest of parts of the Roman Empire by Germanic peoples and the subsequent dominance by the Western Christian Papacy (which held combined political and spiritual authority, a state of affairs absent from Greek civilization in all its stages), resulted in a rupture of the previously existing ties between the Latin West and Greek thought, including Christian Greek thought. , In the 20th century, Christianity declined in influence in many Western countries, mostly in the European Union where some member states have experienced falling church attendance and membership in recent years, and also elsewhere. Latin language has been the base from which Romance languages evolved and it has been the official language of the Catholic Church and all Catholic religious ceremonies all over Europe until 1967, as well as an or the official language of countries such as Poland (9th–18th centuries). In this context it is interest-ing that Wilkinson asserts that his so-called Central civilization is "less geographically determined" than other civilizations.  The Eastern Mediterranean was home to the highly urbanized cultures that had Greek as their common language (owing to the older empire of Alexander the Great and of the Hellenistic successors. The Eastern Roman Empire surviving the fall of the Western protected Roman legal and cultural traditions, combining them with Greek and Christian elements, for another thousand years. , The Roman Empire is where the idea of "the West" began to emerge. What is the Difference Between the Vatican City and the Holy See? Western civilization has had an enormous outsize impact on the wider world in the last two centuries, primarily through spreading western ideas and assumptions about society. “Western Civilization was responsible for a paradigm shift in history. Huntington divided the world into the "major civilizations" in his thesis as such: Western civilization, comprising the United States and Canada, Western and Central Europe, Australia, Oceania and most of the Philippines. The Western countries refer to countries mainly in Europe, the Americas, and Australasia. Islamic and Byzantine scholars added to the Western canonwhen their stores of Greek … : Geographicus Rare Antique Maps", http://www.mercaba.org/SANLUIS/Historia/Universal/Huntington,%20Samuel%20-%20El%20choque%20de%20civilizaciones.pdf, "Key figures Immigration and immigrants – SSB", Innvandrere og norskfødte med innvandrerforeldre, 1. januar 2015, Role of Judaism in Western culture and civilization, "The Evolution of Civilizations – An Introduction to Historical Analysis (1979)", Section 31.8, The Intellectual Life of Arab Islam, "How Islam Created Europe; In late antiquity, the religion split the Mediterranean world in two. Meanwhile, the Ottoman Turks consolidated control over the eastern Mediterranean, closing off key overland trade routes. , The term "Western culture" is used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, religious beliefs, political systems, and specific artifacts and technologies. English and Dutch colonies, on the other hand, tended to be more religiously diverse. Therefore, Iberia (Portugal and Spain), Gaul (France), the Mediterranean coast of North Africa (Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco) and Britannia were all part of the "West", while Greece, Cyprus, Anatolia, Lebanon, Syria, Israel, Palestine, Egypt, and Libya were part of the "East". Ancient Greece[c] and ancient Rome[d] are generally considered to be the birthplaces of Western civilization—Greece having heavily influenced Rome—the former due to its impact on philosophy, democracy, science, aesthetics, as well as building designs and proportions and architecture; the latter due to its influence on art, law, warfare, governance, republicanism, engineering and religion. ), whereas the West was much more rural in its character and more readily adopted Latin as its common language. [b] The Western world is also known as the Occident (from the Latin word occidens, "sunset, West"), in contrast to the Orient (from the Latin word oriens, "rise, East") or Eastern world. ", Western world's major national buildings and churches by the colonial 15th–20th centuries, Map illustrations of the West according to different but closely interrelated definitions, Ancient Greek-Hellenistic worlds (13th–1st centuries BC), Middle Ages: Byzantine Empire (AD 395–1450), Holy Roman Empire (AD 800/962–1806), East-West Schism (AD 1054), Protestant Reformation (1500s), Colonial West: discovery of America, mercantilism and imperialism (15th–20th centuries). The Holy Roman Empire would dissolve on 6 August 1806, after the French Revolution and the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by Napoleon. This was in note of the fact that both Catholic and Orthodox were in use as ecclesiastical adjectives as early as the 2nd and 4th centuries respectively. The Eastern Mediterranean was home to the highly urbanized cultures that had Greek as their common language (owing to the older empire of Alexander the Great and of the Hellenistic successors. Religion survived in Russia beside severe persecution carrying values alternative to the communist ideology.  Tensions escalated in 2014 after Russia's annexation of Crimea, military intervention in Ukraine, and the 2015 Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War. Renaissance architectural works, revivals of Classical and Gothic styles, flourished during this modern period throughout Western colonial empires. Lambchop is a group that takes an obvious pride in working on a grand scale -- this is a band that's swelled to as many as 16 members at times and in 2004 released two full-length albums on the same day -- so it should come as no surprise that they've come up with more worthwhile material than they've found room for on their LPs. Subcommittee on Multinational Corporations, Learn how and when to remove this template message, building designs and proportions and architecture, populations have had a large presence of particular European ethnic groups, immigration of Europeans in the 20th century, civil wars, corruption, and devastating Germanic invasions, Roman Catholic and Eastern Greek Orthodox, including the heart of the Byzantine Empire, Western European colonialism and colonization, member states of the Commonwealth of Nations, 2015 Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), "9780500040034: The Birth of Western Civilization: Greece and Rome", "Athens.  The country's elite started the Westernization efforts, beginning with Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who took power as the first president of the modern Turkish nation-state in 1923, imposed western institutions and dress, removed the Arabic alphabet and embraced the Latin alphabet.  West was originally literal, opposing Catholic Europe with the cultures and civilizations of Orthodox Europe, West Asia and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia, which early-modern Europeans saw as the East. The Papal Inquisition was established in AD 1229 on a permanent basis, run largely by clergymen in Rome, and abolished six centuries later. , In a debated Cold War II, a new definition emerged inside the realm of western journalism. Whether Latin America and the former member states of the Soviet Union are included, or are instead … Decline of the Byzantine Empire (13th–15th centuries) began with the Latin Christian Fourth Crusade in AD 1202–04, considered to be one of the most important events, solidifying the schism between the Christian churches of Greek Byzantine Rite and Latin Roman Rite. “Western nations are not going to collapse, but the smooth operation and friendly nature of Western society will disappear, because inequity is going to explode,” Randers argues. The official religions of the United Kingdom and some Nordic countries are forms of Christianity, while the majority of European countries have no official religion. There are numerous definitions of what constitutes the Western world that are closely related.  As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread throughout the Western World. [g] The geographical identity of the Balkans is historically known as a crossroads of cultures, a juncture between the Latin and Greek bodies of the Roman Empire, the destination of a massive influx of pagans (meaning "non-Christians") Bulgars and Slavs, an area where Catholic and Orthodox Christianity met, as well as the meeting point between Islam and Christianity. spatial phenomenon they call Western Civilization.6 Secondly, the idea that Western civilization begins with the classical world presents certain geopolitical problems. Before AD 1100, the Catholic Church suppressed what they believed to be heresy, usually through a system of ecclesiastical proscription or imprisonment, but without using torture, and seldom resorting to executions. World population had been rising as well. The term "Western world" can mean a number of different things, but generally it refers to countries in Europe and North America. The three-day Visigoths's AD 410 sack of Rome who had been raiding Greece not long before, a shocking time for Graeco-Romans, was the first time after almost 800 years that Rome had fallen to a foreign enemy, and St. Jerome, living in Bethlehem at the time, wrote that "The City which had taken the whole world was itself taken. It’s that bringing those things together under the heading “Western Civilization” is a form of what he calls “organicism,” that is, “a vision of culture not as a loose assemblage of disparate fragments but as an organic unity, each component, like the organs in a body, carefully adapted to occupy a particular place, each part essential to the functioning of the whole.” Western culture was influenced by many older civilizations of the ancient Near East, such as Phoenicia, Ancient Israel, Minoan Crete, Sumer, Babylonia, and also Ancient Egypt. The Greeks also dedicated their whole lives to … , Some tendencies that define modern Western societies are the existence of political pluralism, secularism, generalization of middle class, prominent subcultures or countercultures (such as New Age movements), increasing cultural syncretism resulting from globalization and human migration. Western civilization is also strongly associated with Christianity (and to a lesser extent, with Judaism), which is in turn shaped by Hellenistic philosophy and Roman culture. Major civilizations according to Huntington. Such voyages were influenced by medieval European adventurers after the European spice trade with Asia, who had journeyed overland to the Far East contributing to geographical knowledge of parts of the Asian continent. It is a generally accepted western view to recognize the existence of at least three "major worlds" (or "cultures", or "civilizations"), broadly in contrast with the Western: the Eastern world, the Arab and the African worlds, with no clearly specified boundaries. The geographic line of religious division approximately followed a line of cultural divide. , The theologian and paleontologist Pierre Teilhard de Chardin conceived of the West as the set of civilizations descended from the Nile Valley Civilization of Egypt.. Additionally, Latin American and Orthodox worlds are sometimes separately considered "akin" to the West. , In AD 395, a few decades before its Western collapse, the Roman Empire formally split into a Western and an Eastern one, each with their own emperors, capitals, and governments, although ostensibly they still belonged to one formal Empire. . Others have fiercely criticized these views arguing they confuse the Eastern Roman Empire with Russia, especially considering the fact that the country that had the most historical roots in Byzantium (Greece) expelled communists and was allied with the West during the Cold War.  The same has been done by Malthusian demographers with a sharp distinction between European and non-European family systems. Before the abolition of its slave trade in 1807, the British Empire alone (which had started colonial efforts in 1578, almost a century after Portuguese and Spanish empires) was responsible for the transportation of 3.5 million African slaves to the Americas, a third of all slaves transported across the Atlantic. For those of us who come from the Anglo-sphere portion of Western Civilization, we only need to go back as far as the Magna Carta. Roman Catholics were the first major religious group to immigrate to the New World, as settlers in the colonies of Spain and Portugal (and later, France) belonged to that faith. While the second option is the most appropriate and useful for an analysis focused on the international political consequences of civilizations, including relations between Latin America, on the one hand, and North America and Europe, on the other, he also mentions that the underlying conflict of Latin America belonging to the West must eventually be addressed in order to develop a cohesive Latin American identity. Its movement was affected by the influence of the Byzantine empire and the fluctuating power and influence of the Catholic church in Rome. The term Western Civilization refers broadly to a constellation of customs, beliefs, political systems, and events rooted in European history and Western culture. In its 10-centuries expansion, Roman civilization shifted from a small monarchy (753 – 509 BC), to a republic (509 – 27 BC), to an autocratic empire (27 BC – AD 476). It has also indirectly given voice to an age-old question about Russia: is she Western, or not? A series of scholars of civilization, including Arnold J. Toynbee, Alfred Kroeber and Carroll Quigley have identified and analyzed "Western civilization" as one of the civilizations that have historically existed and still exist today. Over time, their associated empires grew first to the east and west to include the rest of Mediterranean and Black Sea coastal areas, conquering and absorbing. The extremely wealthy (after previous Crusades) Venetians in particular made a successful attempt to maintain control over the coast of Catholic present-day Croatia (specifically the Dalmatia, a region of interest to the maritime medieval Venetian Republic moneylenders and its rivals, such as the Republic of Genoa) rebelling against the Venetian economic domination. Map showing relative degree of religiosity by country. , This very profitable Central European Fourth Crusade had prompted the 14th century Renaissance (translated as 'Rebirth') of Italian city-states including the Papal States, on eve of the Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation (which established the Roman Inquisition to succeed the Medieval Inquisition). In the UK, 59% of the population identify themselves as Christians and attend primary functions in church, such as Easter and Christmas. Some regions in Latin America incorporate indigenous cultures, which did not exist in Europe and were effectively annihilated in the United States, and whose importance oscillates between two extremes: Mexico, Central America, Paraguay, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, on the one hand, and Uruguay, Brazil, Chile and Argentina on the other. Some Third World countries aligned themselves with either the US-led West or the Soviet-led Eastern bloc. Modern Western civilization, after all, is a relatively recent phenomenon that arose through the fusion of Roman and Christian ideas in Europe during the Medieval Era. Spain did not join the NATO until 1982, seven years after the death of the authoritarian Franco. Ancient Romans distinguished between Oriental (Eastern, or Asian) cultures like Ancient Egypt that lived in the West. The Roman and Greek Influence The first key influence on western civilization was the Romans and the Greeks. Before the Cold War era, the traditional Western viewpoint identified Western Civilization with the Western Christian (Catholic-Protestant) countries and culture. The geopolitical divisions in Europe that created a concept of East and West originated in the Roman Empire. These are seen as fostering the 19th century Western world's sustained economic development. Are Russia and America bound by the same ties that unite us with … In the Americas, Christianity continues to play an important societal role, though in areas such as Canada, a low level of religiosity is common due to a European-type secularization. 6 years ago. , The dissolution of the Western half (nominally in AD 476, but in truth a long process that ended by AD 800) left only the Eastern Roman Empire alive. More specifically, Cold War II, also known as the Second Cold War, New Cold War, Cold War Redux, Cold War 2.0, and Colder War, refers to the tensions, hostilities, and political rivalry that intensified dramatically in 2014 between the Russian Federation on the one hand, and the United States, European Union, NATO and some other countries on the other hand. Although it is a scion of European (mainly Spanish and Portuguese) civilization, it also incorporates, to an extent, elements of indigenous American civilizations, absent from North America and Europe. Palestinian-American literary critic Edward Said uses the term occident in his discussion of orientalism. [i][j][k] The European colonization of the Americas led to the Atlantic slave trade between the 1490s and the 1800s, which also contributed to the development of African intertribal warfare and racist ideology. Later, they expanded to the north of the Mediterranean Sea to include Western, Central, and Southeastern Europe. During the 20th century, there was a significant decline in Christian influence among most of the Western countries, particularly in the European Union. The Bible itself is responsible for much of the language, literature, and fine arts we enjoy today as its artists and composers were heavily influenced by its writings. By Rome's central location at the heart of the Empire, "West" and "East" were terms used to denote provinces west and east of the capital itself. , In the early-19th century, the systematic urbanisation process (migration from villages in search of jobs in manufacturing centers) had begun, and the concentration of labour into factories led to the rise in the population of the towns. Some say: "Yes, we are part of the West." Which Countries Are Part Of Western Asia? Historical records of Western culture in Europe begin with Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Western culture and civilization showed their mettle as well! Herodotus considered the Persian Wars of the early 5th century BC a conflict of Europa versus Asia (which he considered all land north and east of the Sea of Marmara, respectively). According to his binary, the West, or Occident, created a romanticized vision of the East, or Orient, to justify colonial and imperialist intentions. Multinational corporations came to offer "a dramatic refinement of the traditional business enterprise", through "issues as far ranging as national sovereignty, ownership of the means of production, environmental protection, consumerism, and policies toward organized labor." It came to dominate Western, Central and Southeastern Europe and the entire area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea through conquest using the Roman legions and then through cultural assimilation by eventually giving Roman citizenship privileges to the whole population. , The geopolitical divisions in Europe that created a concept of East and West originated in the ancient tyrannical and imperialistic Graeco-Roman times.  The Greeks would highlight the lack of freedom in the Persian world, something that they viewed as antithetical to their culture. Italy itself was considered central, until the reforms of Diocletian dividing the Empire into true two halves: Eastern and Western. During these struggles hundreds of senators were killed, and the Roman Senate had been refilled with loyalists[vague] of the First Triumvirate and later those of the Second Triumvirate. The Second World was the Eastern bloc in the Soviet sphere of influence, including the Soviet Union (15 republics including the then-occupied and presently independent Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and Warsaw Pact countries like Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, East Germany (now united with Germany), and Czechoslovakia (now split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia). Though the overt colonial era had passed, Western nations, as comparatively rich, well-armed, and culturally powerful states, wielded a large degree of influence throughout the world, and with little or no sense of responsibility toward the peoples impacted by its multinational corporations in their exploitation of minerals and markets. , Many anthropologists, sociologists and historians oppose "the West and the Rest" in a categorical manner. Ken. , The Roman Empire succeeded the approximately 500-year-old Roman Republic (c. 510 BC – 30 BC), which had been weakened by the conflict between Gaius Marius and Sulla and the civil war of Julius Caesar against Pompey and Marcus Brutus. On the other hand, the Orient is derived from the Latin word “oriens,” rise or east. The result was a series of western European military campaigns into the eastern Mediterranean, known as the Crusades.  The dictum of Alfred Thayer Mahan is shown to have lasting relevance, that whoever controls the seas controls the world. The Western Roman Empire provinces eventually were replaced by Northern European Germanic ruled kingdoms in the 5th century due to civil wars, corruption, and devastating Germanic invasions from such tribes as the Goths, the Franks and the Vandals by their late expansion throughout Europe. The West rose further with the 18th century's Age of Enlightenment and through the Age of Exploration's expansion of peoples of Western and Central European empires, particularly the globe-spanning colonial empires of 18th and 19th centuries. It is his chief example of a "torn country" that is attempting to join Western civilization. Toynbee entered into quite an expansive mode, including as candidates those countries or cultures who became so heavily influenced by the West as to adopt these borrowings into their very self-identity. Japan was involved primarily in the so-called Meiji period (1868–1912), though earlier contact with the Portuguese, the Spaniards and the Dutch were also present in recognition of European nations as strategically important to the Japanese Empire. As European influence spread across the globe, these Westphalian principles, especially the concept of sovereign states, became central to international law and to the prevailing world order. Western History is full of examples. Although Christianized by early Middle Ages. Western civilization traces its roots back to Europe and the Mediterranean.It is linked to ancient Greece, the Roman Empire and with Medieval Western Christendom which emerged from the Middle Ages to experience such transformative episodes as the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Enlightenment, the Industrial Revolution, scientific revolution, and the development of … The Emperor sent a plea to the Pope in Rome to send military aid to restore the lost territories to Christian rule. France is going through a Soft Landing civilizational collapse The French people are so totally indoctrinated by cultural Marxism and fear of racism that they refuse to recognize their own national self-interests. Italy, Poland and Portugal) more than half the people state that religion is important, and most Westerners nominally identify themselves as Christians (e.g. [f], In AD 800 under Charlemagne, the Early Medieval Franks established an empire that was recognized by the Pope in Rome as the Holy Roman Empire (Latin Christian revival of the ancient Roman Empire, under perpetual Germanic rule from AD 962) inheriting ancient Roman Empire's prestige but offending the Roman Emperor in Constantinople.  A 2011 Pew Research Center survey found that 76.2% of Europeans, 73.3% in Oceania, and about 86.0% in the Americas (90% in Latin America and 77.4% in North America) described themselves as Christians. From the time of Caesar (100 – 44 BC) to the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Rome dominated Southern Europe, the Mediterranean coast of Northern Africa and the Western Middle East, including the ancient trade routes with population living outside. There is debate among some as to whether Latin America as a whole is in a category of its own. The difference for society between the Western norm and the harem was well understood by Kemal Ataturk, the first president of the Turkish Republic, who in speeches in … , Between the 1870s and 1914 (the so-called Beautiful Era, socioeconomically optimistic and innovative decades of the Second Industrial Revolution), the established colonial powers in Asia (United Kingdom, France, Netherlands) added to their empires also vast expanses of territory in the Indian Subcontinent and South East Asia. 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